Microarray based services usable with SNPedia and Promethease:
- 23andMe $199 + shipping (DHL air-mail outside USA) one time payment, lifetime membership. Uses a customized Illumina chip which covers 25696 of the 82726 SNPs in SNPedia.
- Ancestry.com uses Illumina OmniExpress Plus, reporting all SNP's on chip for $99. Most users will receive data for between 12,800 - 13,300 of the SNPs in SNPedia (as of Oct. 2015). However, starting in May 2016, some (all?) Ancestry customers are receiving significantly more data, resulting in Promethease reports of ~ 47,000 SNPs. This test is currently available in the USA, Canada, Australia, and the UK.
- FamilyTreeDNA Family Finder uses an Illumina OmniExpress for autosomal ancestry testing for $99, including partial raw data download. It covers 13,193 of the SNPs in SNPedia.
- Genes for Good $0 after answering surveys
Sequencing based services usable with SNPedia and Promethease:
- Full Genomes Corp offers full human genome sequencing. The highest tier has 30x coverage for $1600 and currently (as of November 30th, 2015) provides data for 60,326 SNPs (based on one sample) in SNPedia. Lower depth of coverage (2x, 4x, 10x, 20x) are available for lower prices.
- Illumina https://www.understandyourgenome.com/ or http://everygenome.com must be ordered by your physician
(See also links listed on Ancestry page for genetic genealogical testing.)
- Pathway Genomics offers various kits for Ancestry and Health, but seems not to release raw data and so isn't of much use with Promethease.
- ancestrybydna.com $199+ but the raw data is very limited, and unlikely to be of much use with SNPedia.
- Color Genomics $249 to get BRCA1 and some other genes sequenced, however, the company does not release any data back to the customer and does not provide a list of which variants are being checked.
Possibly useful but apparently impractical:
- Complete Genomics offers full human genome sequencing for $5k as a service for researchers.
- Knome offers direct full genome sequencing for $95,000
- The Personal Genome Project aims to recruit 100,000 volunteers and publish their genomes and medical information
- Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative is free, but returns information on only 51 snps which meet IRB approval
Genetics & Public Policy Center Aug 2011 list of DTC companies
See also testing experiences
NEJM sets realistic expectations. Also note that current Affymetrix and Illumina microarray chips as used by 23andMe, deCODEme and others cover less than 50% of all likely genome variation at even 50% efficacy.[PMID 17726055]
Reminder: the heritability of medical conditions varies widely, from conditions that show little inherited genetic influence to those that are almost completely genetically determined (such as cystic fibrosis). A list summarizing some published heritability estimates for various medical conditions is available. We are also summarizing some average lifetime risks for many of these same conditions on the Lifetime Risk page.
Note: Anyone who wishes genetic counseling may find a counselor directly through several means, completely independent of the gene testing companies. In the U.S., the primary sources include the National Society of Genetic Counselors, asking your doctor, and checking with your healthcare insurer. If you are a qualified physician or genetic counselor interested in helping individuals interpret their genomic test results, please email us at email@example.com as we intend to release a list of such individuals in the future.
At SNPedia, we have begun to collect pages about people's testing experiences. A particularly thoughtful article (among others) has been published by psychologist Steven Pinker (My Genome, My Self) based on his pondering his own DNA chip and (partial) DNA sequence data; it's well worth reading.
In the US, some people are wary of having genetic tests performed due to concerns over the possible use of genetic information by potential employers or insurance (health or life) companies in the absence of federal legislation banning genetic discrimination. Federal legislation known as GINA, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, was signed into law on May 21, 2008. Most states, but not all, have passed legislation providing either genetic privacy protection or some degree of protection against discrimination. The NIH/NHGRI maintains webpages about genetic discrimination primarily the federal level, and the National Conference of State Legislatures maintains a webportal surveying laws related to many aspects of genetics in different states.
For an interesting discussion (and possible solution) of the ways in which SNP/disease patents may threaten you or your physician from learning things about your health, see this article.