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From SNPedia

Geno Mag Summary
(C;C) 2 ~80% of such hepatitis C patients respond to treatment
(C;T) 2.5 ~20-40% of such hepatitis C patients respond to treatment
(T;T) 3 ~20-25% of such hepatitis C patients respond to treatment
ReferenceGRCh38 38.1/141
is asnp
is mentioned by
dbSNP (classic)rs12979860
1000 genomesrs12979860
GWAS Ctlgrs12979860
Max Magnitude3
? (C;C) (C;T) (T;T) 28

rs12979860 is a SNP near the IL28B gene, encoding interferon-lambda-3 (IFN-lambda-3).

Several studies now indicate that this SNP predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. It is associated with an approximately twofold change in response to pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-alpha) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment, both among patients of European ancestry (p = 1.06 x 10e-25) and African-Americans (p = 2.06 x 10e-3). These studies indicate that the virus was eradicated in ~80% of (C;C) patients, compared to only about 25% of those with (T;T), while (C;T) response was intermediate.[PMID 19684573, PMID 19749758, PMID 19749757]

FDA PGx mentions about rs12979860 with respect to Boceprevir, Simeprevir, Sofosbuvir, and Telaprevir

23andMe blog

rs8099917(C) less likely to respond to Hepatitis C treatment. A functional SNP rs368234815(TT) corresponds to the rs12979860(C).[PMID 25577150OA-icon.png]

rs12979860(C;C) better able to become naturally Hepatitis C virus-free. rs12980275(A) usually corresponds to the rs12979860(C)

GWAS snp
PMID [PMID 19684573]
Trait Response to Hepatitis C treatment
Title Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance
Risk Allele C
P-val 1E-28
Odds Ratio 2.00 [1.8-2.3] (European-Americans)

[PMID 20176026OA-icon.png] Replicated Association between an IL28B Gene Variant and a Sustained Response to Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin

[PMID 20235331OA-icon.png] Interferon-lambda genotype and low serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

[PMID 20389235OA-icon.png] Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism near the interleukin-28B gene with response to hepatitis C therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients

[PMID 20578254] Interleukin-28B genetic variants and hepatitis virus infection by different viral genotypes

[PMID 20637200] A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance, of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice

[PMID 20964522] Modeling the Probability of Sustained Virological Response to Therapy with Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin in Patients Coinfected with Hepatitis C Virus and HIV

[PMID 21068134] HCV substitutions and IL28B polymorphisms on outcome of peg-interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy

[PMID 21070502] Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and viral load in a HIV-1-infected cohort


[PMID 21413051] Genetic variation in IL28B with respect to vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus and spontaneous clearance in HCV infected children

[PMID 21447862] Association of genetic variation in IL28B with hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance in the Chinese Han population

[PMID 21505315OA-icon.png] IL28B gene polymorphisms and viral kinetics in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin

[PMID 21618576] Impact of viral amino acid substitutions and host IL28B polymorphism on replication and susceptibility to interferon of hepatitis C virus

[PMID 21647799] Role of Interleukin 28B rs12979860 C/T Polymorphism on the Histological Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C: Relationship with Gender and Viral Genotype

[PMID 21722179] Predicting response to therapy in chronic hepatitis C: an approach combining IL28B gene polymorphisms and clinical data

[PMID 21750736OA-icon.png] Characterization of Serum Proteins Associated with IL28B Genotype among Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

[PMID 21790472] IL28B Polymorphism Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Infection in a Southern Brazilian HIV Type 1 Population

[PMID 21606533] Interleukin 28B gene variation at rs12979860 determines early viral kinetics during treatment in patients carrying genotypes 2 or 3 of hepatitis C virus

[PMID 21390311OA-icon.png] Response prediction in chronic hepatitis C by assessment of IP-10 and IL28B-related single nucleotide polymorphisms

[PMID 21884517OA-icon.png] IL28B Genotype Does Not Correlate with HIV Control in African Americans

[PMID 21933876OA-icon.png] Genetic Polymorphism in IL28B Is Associated With Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Infection in an Egyptian Cohort

[PMID 21987611OA-icon.png] IL28B polymorphisms associated with therapy response in Chilean chronic hepatitis C patients

[PMID 21994136OA-icon.png] Ultra-Rapid Virological Response, Young Age, Low ?-GT/ALT-Ratio, and Absence of Steatosis Identify a Subgroup of HCV Genotype 3 Patients Who Achieve SVR with IFN-?(2a) Monotherapy

[PMID 21760886OA-icon.png] An IL28B genotype-based clinical prediction model for treatment of chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 22087138OA-icon.png] Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL28B and sustained virologic response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to PEG-interferon/ribavirin therapy: A meta-analysis: Meta-analysis of IL28B

[PMID 22118055] Single and combined IL28B, ITPA and SLC28A3 host genetic markers modulating response to anti-hepatitis C therapy

[PMID 22234924] Combined effects of different IL28B gene variants on the outcome of dual combination therapy in chronic HCV type 1 infection

[PMID 22239156] IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism dose not influence outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection

[PMID 22257210] A Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction for the Detection of rs8099917 IL28B Genotype

[PMID 22374338OA-icon.png] Evaluation of interleukin 28B single nucleotide polymorphisms in infants suffering from bronchiolitis

[PMID 22473858] IL28B polymorphisms predict interferon-related HBsAg seroclearance in genotype D HBeAg-negative patients with chronic hepatitis B

[PMID 22509814] Frequency of IL28B rs12979860 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Alleles in Newborn Infants and in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C in Morocco

[PMID 22521237] Closed tube method for rapid screening of IL28B polymorphisms involved in response to hepatitis C treatment

[PMID 22530607] Implications of PNPLA3 polymorphism in chronic hepatitis C patients receiving peginterferon plus ribavirin

[PMID 22550527OA-icon.png] Development and Validation of a Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive PCR-RFLP Method for Genotyping of Common IL28B Polymorphisms: A Useful Pharmacogenetic Tool for Prediction of Hepatitis C Treatment Response

[PMID 22108195] Polymorphisms near IL28B and serologic response to peginterferon in HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B

[PMID 21889467] Determination of IL28B polymorphisms in liver biopsies obtained after liver transplantation

[PMID 22634340] Association of the IL28B genotype with insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 22253847OA-icon.png] Sequence analysis of the IL28A/IL28B inverted gene duplication that contains polymorphisms associated with treatment response in hepatitis C patients

[PMID 22253715OA-icon.png] Impact of IL28B-related single nucleotide polymorphisms on liver histopathology in chronic hepatitis C genotype 2 and 3

[PMID 22649509OA-icon.png] IL28B Genetic Variation Is Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus, Treatment Response, Serum IL-28B Levels in Chinese Population

[PMID 22666430OA-icon.png] Relation of IL28B Gene Polymorphism with Biochemical and Histological Features in Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Liver Disease

[PMID 22664940] Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C infection after liver transplantation from IL28B rs12979860 CC donors

[PMID 22720022OA-icon.png] A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in viet nam

[PMID 22790387] Increased Risk of Severe Hepatitis C Virus Recurrence After Liver Transplantation in Patients With a T Allele of IL28B rs12979860

[PMID 19759533OA-icon.png] Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus.

[PMID 20399780] Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.

[PMID 20621700] An IL28B polymorphism determines treatment response of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 patients who do not achieve a rapid virologic response.

[PMID 20659305] A tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction for the evaluation of rs12979860 IL28B genotype.

[PMID 20728570] Impact of IL28B genotype on the early and sustained virologic response in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 20804372] Prediction of response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin by IL28B gene variation in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus.

[PMID 20889274] IL28B polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 20931559OA-icon.png] IL28B genotype is associated with differential expression of intrahepatic interferon-stimulated genes in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 20977343OA-icon.png] IL28B polymorphism does not determine outcomes of hepatitis B virus or HIV infection.

[PMID 21080244] The IL-28 genotype: how it will affect the care of patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 21112657] Importance of IL28B gene polymorphisms in hepatitis C virus genotype 2 and 3 infected patients.

[PMID 21112660] Predictive value of the IL28B polymorphism on the effect of interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients with genotypes 2a and 2b.

[PMID 21145807] Early virologic response and IL28B polymorphisms in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin.

[PMID 21145813] Interferon-lambda serum levels in hepatitis C.

[PMID 21146242] IL-28B rs12979860 C/T allele distribution in patients with liver cirrhosis: role in the course of chronic viral hepatitis and the development of HCC.

[PMID 21147186] Impact of donor and recipient IL28B rs12979860 genotypes on hepatitis C virus liver graft reinfection.

[PMID 21157362OA-icon.png] Pharmacodynamics of PEG-IFN-[alpha]-2a and HCV response as a function of IL28B polymorphism in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

[PMID 21228123] IL-28B predicts response to chronic hepatitis C therapy--fine-mapping and replication study in Asian populations.

[PMID 21254158OA-icon.png] Quantitation of pretreatment serum interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 improves the predictive value of an IL28B gene polymorphism for hepatitis C treatment response.

[PMID 21254179OA-icon.png] Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with histological recurrence and treatment response following liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 21274371OA-icon.png] Peginterferon and ribavirin treatment for hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 21354446] IL28B polymorphisms predict reduction of HCV RNA from the first day of therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 21374656] IL28B genetic variation and treatment response in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection.

[PMID 21375685] Different distributions of hepatitis C virus genotypes among HIV-infected patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C according to interleukin-28B genotype.

[PMID 21376050OA-icon.png] Coffee consumption is associated with response to peginterferon and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 21378537] Association between IL28B gene polymorphisms and plasma HCV-RNA levels in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients.

[PMID 21389156OA-icon.png] The rs8099917 polymorphism, when determined by a suitable genotyping method, is a better predictor for response to pegylated alpha interferon/ribavirin therapy in Japanese patients than other single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with interleukin-28B.

[PMID 21397726] Portal pressure predicts outcome and safety of antiviral therapy in cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 21466653] Donor and recipient IL28B polymorphisms in HCV-infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy before and after liver transplantation.

[PMID 21488075] Impact of patatin-like phospholipase-3 (rs738409 C>G) polymorphism on fibrosis progression and steatosis in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 21549150] Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on high-resolution melting analysis for the determination of the rs12979860 polymorphism involved in hepatitis C treatment response.

[PMID 21572301] Low-density lipoprotein receptor genotyping enhances the predictive value of IL28B genotype in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients.

[PMID 21592993] Influence of interleukin-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms on progression to liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.

[PMID 21600205OA-icon.png] A polymorphism in IL28B distinguishes exposed, uninfected individuals from spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection.

[PMID 21613433OA-icon.png] Interleukin-28B genotyping by melt-mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR analysis using single nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917, a useful tool for prediction of therapy response in hepatitis C patients.

[PMID 21626525] Limited use of interleukin 28B in the setting of response-guided treatment with detailed on-treatment virological monitoring.

[PMID 21670772] Importance of host genetic factors HLA and IL28B as predictors of response to pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

[PMID 21692944] IL28B polymorphisms determine early viral kinetics and treatment outcome in patients receiving peginterferon/ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1.

[PMID 21703198OA-icon.png] Beneficial IL28B genotype associated with lower frequency of hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 21703201] The predictive value of IL28B gene polymorphism for spontaneous clearance in a single source outbreak cohort is limited in patients carrying the CCR5Delta32 mutation.

[PMID 21704279OA-icon.png] Simultaneous genotyping of rs12979860 and rs8099917 variants near the IL28B locus associated with HCV clearance and treatment response.

[PMID 21721028] Genetic variation in the interleukin-28B gene is not associated with fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C and known date of infection.

[PMID 21726252] IL28B rs12979860 C/T polymorphism in elderly chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin.

[PMID 21739451] Inverse association of IL28B genotype and liver mRNA expression of genes promoting or suppressing antiviral state.

[PMID 21742841OA-icon.png] IL28B genotype effects during early treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin in difficult-to-treat hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 21813376OA-icon.png] Progression of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients is related to the T allele of the rs12979860 polymorphism of the IL28B gene.

[PMID 21854194] Distribution of polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6, histocompatibility complex P5, chemokine coreceptor 5, and interleukin 28B genes in inhabitants from the central area of Argentina.

[PMID 21889215] IL28B polymorphisms are not associated with the response to interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis.

[PMID 21898478] Association of gene expression involving innate immunity and genetic variation in interleukin 28B with antiviral response.

[PMID 21900787] A single IL28B genotype SNP rs12979860 determination predicts treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C Genotype 1 virus.

[PMID 21903134] Interleukin 28B genotype determination using DNA from different sources: A simple and reliable tool for the epidemiological and clinical characterization of hepatitis C.

[PMID 21907615] Polymorphism near the IL28B gene in Korean hepatitis C virus-infected patients treated with peg-interferon plus ribavirin.

[PMID 21911885] Genetic variation in interleukin-28B predicts SVR in hepatitis C genotype 1 Argentine patients treated with PEG IFN and ribavirin.

[PMID 21918436] Host genetics.

[PMID 21932410] Treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients at an academic center in Europe involved in prospective, controlled trials: is there a selection bias?

[PMID 21932415] Interleukin 28B polymorphism predicts pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4.

[PMID 21951981] IL28B polymorphism is associated with treatment response in patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 21971821] Efficacy of chronic hepatitis C therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in patients on methadone maintenance treatment.

[PMID 21974859] Association between IL28B polymorphisms and first-phase viral load decrease in chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin.

[PMID 21983945OA-icon.png] Natural killer inhibitory receptor expression associated with treatment failure and interleukin-28B genotype in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 22006276] Impact of IL28B on treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus G1/4 patients receiving response-guided therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a (40KD)/ribavirin.

[PMID 22013224OA-icon.png] IL28B rs12979860 genotype and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a multi-ethnic cohort of injection drug users: evidence for a supra-additive association.

[PMID 22027585OA-icon.png] Single nucleotide polymorphism upstream of interleukin 28B associated with phase 1 and phase 2 of early viral kinetics in patients infected with HCV genotype 1.

[PMID 22098416] IL28B polymorphisms are markers of therapy response and are influenced by genetic ancestry in chronic hepatitis C patients from an admixed population.

[PMID 22173157] Prediction of response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients using HCV genotype, IL28B variations, and HCV-RNA load.

[PMID 22180419OA-icon.png] IL28B polymorphisms influence stage of fibrosis and spontaneous or interferon-induced viral clearance in thalassemia patients with hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 22192885] Serum level of IP-10 increases predictive value of IL28B polymorphisms for spontaneous clearance of acute HCV infection.

[PMID 22212648] Contribution of ribavirin transporter gene polymorphism to treatment response in peginterferon plus ribavirin therapy for HCV genotype 1b patients.

[PMID 22222052] Hepatitis C virus viral kinetics during alpha-2a or alpha-2b pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy in liver transplant recipients with different immunosuppression regimes.

[PMID 22234804OA-icon.png] Spontaneous clearance of primary acute hepatitis C virus infection correlated with high initial viral RNA level and rapid HVR1 evolution.

[PMID 22248659] Effect of IL28B genotype on early viral kinetics during interferon-free treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 22285807] Hepatic cell-type specific gene expression better predicts HCV treatment outcome than IL28B genotype.

[PMID 22294646OA-icon.png] Impact of IL28B gene polymorphisms on interferon-lambda3 plasma levels during pegylated interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C in patients coinfected with HIV.

[PMID 22298465] Early viral load and recipient interleukin-28B rs12979860 genotype are predictors of the progression of hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

[PMID 22300408] Recipient IL28B polymorphism is an important independent predictor of posttransplant diabetes mellitus in liver transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 22310928] Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with the development of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

[PMID 22314430] IL28B and PNPLA3 polymorphisms affect histological liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

[PMID 22324878] Does Interleukin-28B Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Influence the Natural History of Hepatitis B?

[PMID 22329371] IL28B genetic variants and gender are associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 22329378] Discordant results using T-ARMS-PCR and sequencing for the evaluation of rs12979860 IL28B genotype.

[PMID 22331604OA-icon.png] Dysregulation of innate immunity in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 IL28B-unfavorable genotype patients: Impaired viral kinetics and therapeutic response.

[PMID 22331649OA-icon.png] HCV RNA levels in a multiethnic cohort of injection drug users: Human genetic, viral and demographic associations.

[PMID 22362153] Differences in virological response to peginterferon-alpha plus ribavirin in HIV-positive patients coinfected with HCV subtypes 1a or 1b.

[PMID 22387386] Predicting sustained viral response to hepatitis C using a rapid and simple IL28B rs8099917 genotyping assay.

[PMID 22411462] Role of IL28B polymorphism in the development of hepatitis C virus-induced hepatocellular carcinoma, graft fibrosis, and posttransplant antiviral therapy.

[PMID 22431022] The interleukin 28B rs12979860 C/T polymorphism and serum cholesterol as predictors of fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C and persistently normal transaminases.

[PMID 22438096] Association of two polymorphisms of the IL28B gene with viral factors and treatment response in 1,518 patients infected with hepatitis C virus.

[PMID 22460962] Development of tropical spastic paraparesis in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers is influenced by interleukin 28B gene polymorphisms.

[PMID 22495472] Recipient interleukin-28B Rs12979860 C/T polymorphism and acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation: role of the calcineurin inhibitor used.

[PMID 22505587] Vitamin D levels and IL28B polymorphisms are related to rapid virological response to standard of care in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 22537149] Development of new IL28B genotyping method using Invader Plus assay.

[PMID 22543885OA-icon.png] The association of genetic variants with hepatic steatosis in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection.

[PMID 22545770] IL28B CC Genotype Is Associated with Higher All-Cause Mortality in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-Infected Patients.

[PMID 22569080OA-icon.png] IL28B favorable genotype and ultrarapid viral response as the earliest treatment predictors of a sustained viral response in a Georgian cohort infected with the hepatitis C genotype 1.

[PMID 22610885] Vitamin D binding protein gene polymorphisms and baseline vitamin D levels as predictors of antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 22613675] Comparison of three different methods for the evaluation of IL28 and ITPA polymorphisms in patients infected with HCV.

[PMID 22641049] Genetics of IL28B and HCV-response to infection and treatment.

[PMID 22664181] A straightforward genotyping of the relevant IL28B SNPs for the prediction of hepatitis C treatment outcome.

[PMID 22966241OA-icon.png] The impact of interferon lambda 3 gene polymorphism on natural course and treatment of hepatitis C

[PMID 22974940] Measurement and Clinical Significance of Interleukin 28B in Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Liver Transplant Patients

[PMID 22766768] The course of posttransplant hepatitis C infection: comparative impact of donor and recipient source of the favorable IL28B genotype and other variables

[PMID 23032421] Low vitamin D levels are associated with impaired virologic response to PEGIFN+RBV therapy in HIV/HCV coinfected patients

[PMID 23080496OA-icon.png] A single nucleotide polymorphism in IL28B affects viral evolution of hepatitis C quasispecies after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy

[PMID 23090351OA-icon.png] Optimum Ribavirin Exposure Overcomes Racial Disparity in Efficacy of Peginterferon and Ribavirin Treatment for Hepatitis C Genotype 1

[PMID 22591106] Meta-analysis: IL28B polymorphisms predict sustained viral response in HCV patients treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin

[PMID 23137758] Genetic polymorphisms of ICAM 1 and IL28 as predictors of liver fibrosis severity and viral clearance in hepatitis C genotype 4

[PMID 23164695] IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism influences serum TNFalpha levels in chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 23173032OA-icon.png] None of the Six SNPs of IL28B Could Predict Treatment Responses in Genotype 2 Chronic HCV Infected Patients by Propensity Score Matching Analysis

[PMID 22719902OA-icon.png] Analysis of IL28B variants in an Egyptian population defines the 20 kilobases minimal region involved in spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus

[PMID 23252241] [Immunogenetic predictors of a rapid virologic response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C]

[PMID 23259930OA-icon.png] Lack of evidence to support the association of a single IL28B genotype SNP rs12979860 with the HTLV-1 clinical outcomes and proviral load

[PMID 23420232OA-icon.png] Genome-Wide Association Study of Spontaneous Resolution of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Data From Multiple Cohorts

[PMID 23440114OA-icon.png] Response to treatment in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C is associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism near the interleukin-28B gene

[PMID 23442843] Role of Interleukin 28B-related Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C and the Response to Antiviral Therapy in Koreans

[PMID 22727259] Different impact of IL28B polymorphisms on response to peginterferon-α plus ribavirin in HIV-positive patients infected with HCV subtypes 1a or 1b

[PMID 23490382] Lack of clinical and histological progression of chronic hepatitis C in individuals with true persistently normal ALT: the result of a 17-year follow-up

[PMID 23029188OA-icon.png] Test of IL28B polymorphisms in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with PegIFN and ribavirin depends on HCV genotypes: results from a meta-analysis

[PMID 23109451] IL28B polymorphisms predict the response to chronic hepatitis C virus infection treatment in a Mexican population

[PMID 23020144] Polymorphisms in interleukin-10 and interleukin-28B genes in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 and their effect on the response to pegylated interferon/ribavirin-therapy

[PMID 23712427OA-icon.png] IL28B expression depends on a novel TT/-G polymorphism which improves HCV clearance prediction

[PMID 23784926OA-icon.png] Role of IL28B gene polymorphism and cell mediated immunity in spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C

[PMID 23782163] Interleukin-28B genetic variations and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C antibody-positive blood donors in China

[PMID 23835502] The impact of interleukin 28B rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism and liver fibrosis stage on response-guided therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients

[PMID 23860735] Genetic variation near interleukin 28B and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 23866096] The predictive value of IL28B rs12979860, rs11881222 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and IP-10 in the therapeutic response of Egyptian genotype 4 patients

[PMID 23063570OA-icon.png] IL28B rs12979860 is not associated with histologic features of NAFLD in a cohort of Caucasian North American patients

[PMID 23063569] Reply to: "IL28B rs12979860 is not associated with histologic features of NAFLD in a cohort of Caucasian North American patients"

[PMID 23880623] Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of IL-10 and IL-28B as Predictors of the Response of IFN Therapy in HCV Genotype 4-infected Children

[PMID 23939236] Variation in IFNL4 genotype and response to interferon-based therapy of hepatitis C in HIV-positive patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 23231085] IL28B polymorphisms predict response to therapy among chronic hepatitis C patients with HCV genotype 4

[PMID 24072198] IFNL4 ss469415590 variant is a better predictor than ILF3 (IL28B) rs12979860 of pegylated interferon-alpha/ribavirin therapy failure in hepatitis C virus/HIV-1 coinfected patients

[PMID 24085431] Association of the interleukin-28B gene polymorphism with development of hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis: a meta-analysis

[PMID 24116050OA-icon.png] A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infections Located in the Distal Region of the IL28B Promoter Influences NF-κB-Mediated Gene Transcription

[PMID 24131527] A polymorphism linked to RRAS, SCAF1, IRF3 and BCL2L12 genes is associated with cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus carriers

[PMID 24167602OA-icon.png] A Fast and Cost-Effective Method for Identifying a Polymorphism of Interleukin 28B Related to Hepatitis C

[PMID 24224717] Genetic variation in toll-like receptors and retinoic acid-inducible gene I and outcome of hepatitis C virus infection: a candidate gene association study

[PMID 23197895OA-icon.png] Novel biosensor-based microarray assay for detecting rs8099917 and rs12979860 genotypes

[PMID 24293567] Interleukin 28B Gene Polymorphisms in Hepatitis C Virus-related Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis

[PMID 24367041OA-icon.png] IFNL4-ΔG Genotype is Associated with Slower Viral Clearance in Hepatitis C, Genotype-1 Patients Treated with Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin

[PMID 24366548OA-icon.png] Expression of selected genes in liver biopsy specimens in relation to early virological response in patients with chronic hepatitis C with HCV mono- and HIV/HCV co-infection

[PMID 24398031OA-icon.png] IL28B and IL10R -1087 polymorphisms are protective for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection and predictors of response to interferon-based therapy in an East-Central European cohort

[PMID 22414761] Apolipoprotein-E and hepatitis C lipoviral particles in genotype 1 infection: evidence for an association with interferon sensitivity.

[PMID 22626609] Factors that predict response of patients with hepatitis C virus infection to boceprevir.

[PMID 22711348] Early anemia and rapid virological response improve the predictive efficiency of IL28B-genotype for treatment outcome to antiviral combination therapy in patients infected with chronic HCV genotype 1.

[PMID 22742526] Meta-analysis: the impact of IL28B polymorphisms on rapid and sustained virological response in HCV-2 and -3 patients.

[PMID 22814458OA-icon.png] Targeting both rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms with a single-tube high-resolution melting assay for IL28b genotyping.

[PMID 22842190] Interleukin-28B polymorphisms on the SVR in the treatment of naive chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin: a meta-analysis.

[PMID 22850127] The genotype frequencies of IL28B polymorphisms (rs12979860, rs8099917) among Turkish patients with hepatitis C.

[PMID 22863269] Interleukin-28B (IL-28B) single-nucleotide polymorphisms and interferon plus ribavirin treatment outcome in Italian chronically HCV-infected patients.

[PMID 22913807] Genetic polymorphism of IL28B in hepatitis C-infected haemophilia patients in Israel.

[PMID 22924160] Sustained virologic response and IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin.

[PMID 22930497OA-icon.png] IL28B polymorphism is not associated with HCV protease diversity in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

[PMID 23002361OA-icon.png] IL28B polymorphism as a predictor of antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 23011083] Combinations of simple baseline variables accurately predict sustained virological response in patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

[PMID 23030669] Interleukin 28B rs12979860 (CT/TT) genotype is associated with milder hepatic damage in the natural evolution of HCV/HIV coinfection.

[PMID 23121166] Insulin resistance predicts sustained virological response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C independently of the IL28b rs12979860 polymorphism.

[PMID 23121365] IL28B genetic variation and hepatitis C virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in anti-HCV-positive blood donors.

[PMID 23133602OA-icon.png] Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.

[PMID 23142377] Association study of IL28B: rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms with SVR in patients infected with chronic HCV genotype 1 to PEG-INF/RBV therapy using systematic meta-analysis.

[PMID 23159283] Importance of IL-10 and IL-6 during chronic hepatitis C genotype-1 treatment and their relation with IL28B.

[PMID 23219017] Cytokines genes polymorphisms in chronic hepatitis C: impact on susceptibility to infection and response to therapy.

[PMID 23220171] Effects of IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype on metabolic profile and sustained virologic response in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 23225905] IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860 is associated with spontaneous HIV control in white subjects.

[PMID 23238552] Low vitamin D levels are associated with impaired virologic response to PEGIFN + RBV therapy in HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients.

[PMID 23258530OA-icon.png] Association of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity with treatment and clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (HCV).

[PMID 23266640] Interleukin-28B rs12979860C/T and rs8099917T/G contribute to spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in Caucasians.

[PMID 23274935] IL28B polymorphism, pretreatment CXCL10, and HCV RNA levels predict treatment response in racially diverse HIV/HCV coinfected and HCV monoinfected patients.

[PMID 23291588OA-icon.png] A variant upstream of IFNL3 (IL28B) creating a new interferon gene IFNL4 is associated with impaired clearance of hepatitis C virus.

[PMID 23301546] Role of IL-28B and inosine triphosphatase polymorphisms in efficacy and safety of Peg-Interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C compensated cirrhosis with and without oesophageal varices.

[PMID 23301835] IL28B genotype is not useful for predicting treatment outcome in Asian chronic hepatitis B patients treated with pegylated interferon-alpha.

[PMID 23314745OA-icon.png] Impact of IL-28B polymorphisms on pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment response in children and adolescents infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 4.

[PMID 23333445OA-icon.png] Differential effects of donor and recipient IL28B and DDX58 SNPs on severity of HCV after liver transplantation.

[PMID 23396730] Vitamin D deficiency and vitamin D therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 23439262] A phase 2a trial of 12-week interferon-free therapy with two direct-acting antivirals (ABT-450/r, ABT-072) and ribavirin in IL28B C/C patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1.

[PMID 23449268] HLA-DP and IL28B polymorphisms: influence of host genome on hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in chronic hepatitis B.

[PMID 23455512OA-icon.png] IL28B SNP screening and distribution in the French Canadian population using a rapid PCR-based test.

[PMID 23490377] Value of IL28B genotyping in patients with HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia: results of a large, prospective study.

[PMID 23499727] Natural killer cell dynamic profile is associated with treatment outcome in patients with chronic HCV infection.

[PMID 23564545] Interferon-lambda polymorphisms and hepatitis C virus clearance revisited.

[PMID 23587473] Treatment optimization and prediction of HCV clearance in patients with acute HCV infection.

[PMID 23611115] Impact of interleukin 28B polymorphisms on spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis.

[PMID 23611467] CARD8 gene encoding a protein of innate immunity is expressed in human atherosclerosis and associated with markers of inflammation.

[PMID 23715768] Effects of the genetic pattern defined by low-density lipoprotein receptor and IL28B genotypes on the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.

[PMID 24776764OA-icon.png] The association of il28b genotype with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C is HCV genotype dependent

[PMID 24379268] [The role of hepcidin and polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the IL-28B gene in HCV infections]

[PMID 24914551OA-icon.png] Impact of Host IL28B rs12979860, rs8099917 in Interferon Responsiveness and Advanced Liver Disease in Chronic Genotype 3 Hepatitis C Patients

[PMID 24927414OA-icon.png] Diversity of Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor (KIR) Genotypes and KIR2DL2/3 Variants in HCV Treatment Outcome

[PMID 24379617OA-icon.png] Interleukin 28B polymorphisms as predictor of response in hepatitis C virus genotype 2 and 3 infected patients

[PMID 24999753] Interleukin 28B Polymorphisms and Therapy Response in Egyptian Hepatitis C Genotype-4 Patients

[PMID 25004625] The importance of sCD40 and sCD40L concentration in patients with chronic HCV infection and HIV co-infection

[PMID 25032184OA-icon.png] No association between the IL28B SNP and response to peginterferon plus ribavirin combination treatment in Korean chronic hepatitis C patients

[PMID 24204859OA-icon.png] Association of IFNL3 rs12979860 and rs8099917 with biochemical predictors of interferon responsiveness in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

[PMID 25204264] Not so sweet: autoimmune diabetes mellitus on triple therapy for chronic hepatitis C infection

[PMID 25227816] IL28B rs12979860 Gene Polymorphism in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Liver Disease Infected with HCV

[PMID 25233462OA-icon.png] IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

[PMID 25460552] A Polymorphism in IFNL3 is an Independent Risk Factor for Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma After Treatment of HCV Infection

[PMID 25563035OA-icon.png] Demographics, clinical characteristics, IFNL3- and IFNL4- polymorphisms in a cohort of hepatitis C patients from Puerto Rico

[PMID 25652367] IL28B rs12980275 polymorphism shows association with response to treatment in Pakistani patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

[PMID 25668821] Interferon lambda-3 polymorphism and response to pegylated interferon in patients with hepatitis D

[PMID 25664396] Gene polymorphisms of interleukin 28B and the risk to chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Thai

[PMID 25687192] Baseline factors associated with treatment response in patients infected with hepatitis C virus 1b by stratification of IL28B polymorphisms

[PMID 25708904] The genotype CC of IL28B SNP rs12979860 is significantly associated with sustained virological response in chronic HCV Pakistani patients

[PMID 25712648] IL28B polymorphism (rs12979860) associated with clearance of HCV infection in Poland: Systematic review of its prevalence in chronic hepatitis C patients and general population frequency

[PMID 25741374OA-icon.png] Efficacy of 24-Week Pegylated Interferon Alpha and Ribavirin Combination Therapy in Highly Selected Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1

[PMID 25740255OA-icon.png] Interferon-λ rs12979860 genotype and liver fibrosis in viral and non-viral chronic liver disease

[PMID 25747035] Genetic variations of IL-28B and PD-1 are in association with the susceptibility and outcomes of HCV infection in Southeast China

[PMID 25769643] IL28B rs12980275 variant as a predictor of sustained virologic response to pegylated-interferon and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis

[PMID 25788203] Influence of IFNL3.rs12979860 and IFNL4.ss469415590 polymorphism on clearance of hepatitis C virus infection among Egyptians

[PMID 25803108OA-icon.png] Favourable IFNL3 Genotypes Are Associated with Spontaneous Clearance and Are Differentially Distributed in Aboriginals in Canadian HIV-Hepatitis C Co-Infected Individuals


[PMID 25864220] IFNL3 polymorphisms and HCV infection in patients with beta thalassemia

[PMID 25872416] CD24 Ala57Val polymorphism is associated with spontaneous viral clearance in the HCV-infected Chinese population

[PMID 25958342] The complete title: The effect of Interleukin-28B rs12979860 polymorphism on the therapeutic response of Moroccan patients with chronic hepatitis C

[PMID 24118788] Genetic variation in interleukin 28B and correlation with chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Saudi Arabian patients

[PMID 26022419] Doubtful Role of IL28B Polymorphism in Occult Hepatitis B Infection

[PMID 26079279] HCV F protein amplifies the predictions of IL-28B and CTLA-4 polymorphisms about the susceptibility and outcomes of HCV infection in Southeast China

[PMID 24924923] The relationship between IL-28B polymorphisms and the response to peginterferon alfa-2a monotherapy in anti-HBe-positive patients with chronic HBV infection

[PMID 26175521OA-icon.png] Spontaneous clearance of the hepatitis C virus among men who have sex with men

[PMID 26186989OA-icon.png] Comparison of Functional Variants in IFNL4 and IFNL3 for Association with Hepatitis C Virus Clearance

[PMID 26209404] Roles of ITPA and IL28B genotypes in chronic Hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin in Tunisian population

[PMID 26263394OA-icon.png] Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C Infections and an Assessment of HCV-Genotypes and Two IL28B SNPs among People Who Inject Drugs in Three Regions of Nepal

[PMID 25938745] IL28B polymorphisms of both recipient and donor cooperate to influence IFN treatment response in HCV recurrence after liver transplantation, but IL28B SNPs of the recipient play a major role in IFN-induced blocking of HCV replication

[PMID 26339796OA-icon.png] Association between CXCL10 and DPP4 Gene Polymorphisms and a Complementary Role for Unfavorable IL28B Genotype in Prediction of Treatment Response in Thai Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

[PMID 26389885OA-icon.png] Duplex High-Resolution Melting Assay for the Simultaneous Genotyping of IL28B rs12979860 and PNPLA3 rs738409 Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

[PMID 26387494] A randomized clinical trial of peginterferon alpha-2b with or without entecavir in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B: Role of host and viral factors associated with treatment response

[PMID 26400298] Association of polymorphism within the interleukin-28 receptor alpha gene, but not in interleukin-28B, with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Chinese

[PMID 25461389] Increased concentration of interferon lambda-3, interferon beta and interleukin-10 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tick-borne encephalitis

[PMID 26406534] IFN lambda 4 genotypes and resistance-associated variants in HCV genotype 1 and 3 infected patients

[PMID 24841973] Distribution of genetic polymorphisms associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral response in a multiethnic and admixed population

[PMID 26060059] Role of IL28B genotyping in patients with hepatitis C virus-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia and response to PEG-IFN and ribavirin treatment

[PMID 24840315] Interleukin-28 gene polymorphisms may contribute to HBsAg persistence and the development of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B

[PMID 25312023] IL28B genetic variations are associated with treatment response of patients with chronic hepatitis C in a Chinese Han population

[PMID 26599080OA-icon.png] The Impact of PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP on Liver Fibrosis Progression, Portal Hypertension and Hepatic Steatosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection

[PMID 26740868OA-icon.png] Prevalence of Hepatitis C among Egyptian Children with Sickle Cell Disease and the Role of IL28b Gene Polymorphisms in Spontaneous Viral Clearance.

[PMID 26902034] Interleukin 28B Polymorphism Predicts Treatment Outcome Among Egyptian Patients Infected With HCV Genotype 4.

Risk Rs12979860(T;T)
Alt Rs12979860(T;T)
Reference Rs12979860(C;C)
Significance Drug-response
Disease peginterferon alfa-2a peginterferon alfa-2a peginterferon alfa-2b response - Efficacy ribavirin response - Efficacy boceprevir response - Efficacy
Variation info
Gene IFNL4
CLNDBN peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, ribavirin, and telaprevir response - Efficacy peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, and ribavirin response - Efficacy peginterferon alfa-2b response - Efficacy ribavirin response - Efficacy boceprevir response - Efficacy
Reversed 0
HGVS NC_000019.9:g.39738787C>T
CLNSRC PharmGKB Clinical Annotation
CLNACC RCV000211184.1, RCV000211399.1, RCV000417146.1, RCV000417163.1, RCV000417179.1,

[PMID 28394349] IFN-λ3, not IFN-λ4, likely mediates IFNL3-IFNL4 haplotype-dependent hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.

[PMID 28655358OA-icon.png] The association between interleukin-28B gene polymorphisms as a potential biomarker and the risk of chronic Periodontitis in an Iranian population.

[PMID 28877177OA-icon.png] An in vitro diagnostic certified point of care single nucleotide test for IL28B polymorphisms.

[PMID 29055988] [Association of HLA-DQ and IFNL4 polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus infection and clearance].

[PMID 29080719] Interleukin 28B rs12979860 Genotype and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Susceptibility, AIDS development and Therapeutic Outcome.

[PMID 29130827] Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Immune-Related Genes with Development of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever in a Mexican Population.

[PMID 29356898] Vitamin D pathway gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C-affected patients treated with new drugs.

[PMID 29666343] Interleukin gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection: a meta-analysis.

[PMID 29914308] IL-28B rs12979860 polymorphism affect the course of chronic hepatitis and the development of HCC in Egyptian patients with hepatitis C type 4.

[PMID 30157968OA-icon.png] Interferon-λ3/4 genetic variants and interferon-λ3 serum levels are biomarkers of lupus nephritis and disease activity in Taiwanese.

[PMID 30344298OA-icon.png] Impact of the Uridine⁻Cytidine Kinase Like-1 Protein and IL28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs on the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Chronic Hepatitis C Patients-A Pilot Study.

[PMID 30484704] Development of a Simple and Cost-Effective Method Based on T7 Endonuclease Cleavage for Detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.

[PMID 31318136] Persistence rate of cervical human papillomavirus infections and abnormal cytology in Rwanda.

[PMID 31565578OA-icon.png] Genetic associations of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms with advanced liver fibrosis and response to pegylated interferon-based therapy in chronic hepatitis C.

[PMID 31803800OA-icon.png] IFNL4 haplotype, linkage disequilibrium and their influence on virological response to hepatitis C virus infection in Indian population.

[PMID 31826071] Interleukin 28 Polymorphisms and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development after Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C.

[PMID 31929778OA-icon.png] Association between Hepatitis C Virus Viremia and the rs12979860, rs2228145 and rs1800795 SNP (CT/AC/GG) Genotype in Saudi Kidney Transplant Recipients.

[PMID 32058988] IL-28B genotypes as predictors of long-term outcome in patients with hepatitis C-related severe liver injury.

[PMID 32065450] Association between interferon lambda 3 rs12979860 polymorphism and clinical outcome in dengue virus-infected children.

[PMID 32421725OA-icon.png] Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1, IL12, IL28 and TLR4 and symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

[PMID 32449798] AIDS incidence and survival in a hospital-based cohort of HIV-positive patients from São Paulo, Brazil: the role of IFN-lambda 4 polymorphisms.