[PMID 18694972] People with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype DRB1*0301-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201/DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (more simply known as "DR3/4-DQ8") are at the highest risk of developing type-1 diabetes.
The rs2040410(A) allele is associated with DRB1*0301, and the rs7454108(C) allele is associated with DQB1*0302 (and thus DQ8).
Instead of more traditional antibody-based tests, two SNPs (rs2040410 and rs7454108) can be used to identify the presence or absence of the DR3/4-DQ8 genotype and thus the highest-risk heterozygous genotype associated with type-1 diabetes. For users of Promethease, this is determined via Gs121.[PMID 15747258] A high-resolution linkage-disequilibrium map of the human major histocompatibility complex and first generation of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
[PMID 18509540] Effective detection of human leukocyte antigen risk alleles in celiac disease using tag single nucleotide polymorphisms.
[PMID 19143815] MHC fine mapping of human type 1 diabetes using the T1DGC data.
[PMID 19143817] Effect of linkage status of affected sib-pairs on the search for novel type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in the HLA complex.
[PMID 19455305] No association of multiple type 2 diabetes loci with type 1 diabetes.
[PMID 22511809] Association of variants in HLA-DQA1-DQB1, PTPN22, INS, and CTLA4 with GAD autoantibodies and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults of the Botnia Prospective Study.